Литература и комментарии

К главе 1 Что такое социальная психология?


1. MichenerJ. (1971). Kent State: What happened andwhy. New York: Random t House.


2. Clark, K. amp; Clark, M. (1947). Racial identification and preference in Negro children. In T.M.Newcomb amp; E.L. Hartley (Eds.), Reading? in social psychology (pp. 169- 178). New York: Holt.


3 . Harris, J. (1970). Hiroshima: A study in science, politics, and the ethics of war. Menio Park, CA: Addison-Wesley.


4. Powell, J.L. (1988). A test of the knew-it-all-along effect in the 1984 presidential and statewide elections. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18, 760-773.


5. Michener, Kent State.


6. Ellen Berscheid; личное сообщение.


7. Zimbardo, P. (1971, October 25). The psychological power and pathology of imprisonment (p. 3). Statement prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on the Judiciary; Subcommittee No. 3: Hearings on Prison Reform, San Francisco, CA.

К главе 2 Конформность


1. Copyright c 1933, 1961 by James Thurber. From ‹The day the dam broke›, in My life and hard times (New York: Harper, 1933), pp. 41, 47. (Впервые напечатано в: New Yorker).


2. Schachter, S. (1951). Deviation, rejection, and communication. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 46, 190-207.


3. Kraglanski, A. W. amp; Webster, D.W. (1991). Group member's reaction to opinion deviates and conformists at varying degrees of proximity to decision deadline and of environmental noise. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 212-225.


4. Speer, A. (1970). Inside the Third Reich: Memoirs. (R. Winston amp; C.Winston, Trans.). New York: MacMillan.


5. Playboy, January 1975, p. 78.


6. Kruglansky, A. W. (1986, August). Freeze-think and the Challenger. Psychology Today, pp. 48-49.


7. Janis, 1.L. (1971, November). Groupthink. Psychology Today, pp. 43-46. Janis, 1.L. (1984). Counteracting the adverse effects of concurrence-seeking in policy-planning groups. In H. Brandstatter, J.H. Davis, amp; G. Stocker-Kreichgauer (Eds.), Group decision making. New York: Academic Press.


8. Asch, S. (1951). Effects of group pressure upon the modification and distortion of judgement. In M.H.Guetzkow (Ed.), Groups,leadership and men (pp. 117-190). Pittsburgh: Carnegie. Asch, S. (1956). Studies of independence and conformity: A minority of one against a unanimous majority. Psychological Monographs, 70 (9, Whole No. 416).


9. Wolosin, R., Sherman, S., amp; Cam, A. (1975). Predictions of own and other's conformity. Journal of Personality, 43, 357-378.


10. Deutsch, М., amp; Gerard, H. (1955). A study of normative and informational social influence upon individual judgement. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 51, 629-636.


11. Moulton, L., Blake, R., amp; Olmstead.J. (1956). The relationship between frequency of yielding and the disclosure of personal identity. Journal of Personality, 24, 339-347.


12. Argyle, М. (1957). Social pressure in public and private situations. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 54, 172-175.


13. Asch, S. (1955). Opinions and social pressure. Scientific American, 193 (5), 31-55. Morris, W., amp; Miller, R. (1975). The effects of consensus-preempting partners on reduction of conformity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, II, 215-223. Boyanovsky, E., Alien, V., Bragg, B., amp; Lepinsky, J. (1981). Generalization of independence created by social support. Psychological Record, 31, 475-488.


14. Alien, V., amp; Levine, J. (1971). Social support and conformity: The role of independent assessment of reality. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 7, 48-58.


15. Deutsch amp; Gerard, Normative and informational social influence.


16. Mausner, B. (1954). The effects of prior reinforcement on the interaction of observed pairs. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 49, 65-68. Mausner, B. (1954). The effect on one's partner's success in a relevant task on the interaction of observed pairs. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 49, 557-560. Goldberg, S., amp; Lubin, A. (1958). Influence as a function of perceived judgement error. Human Relations, II, 275-281. Wiesenthal, D., Endler, N., Coward, Т., amp; Edwards, J. (1976). Reversibility of relative competence as a determinant of conformity across different perceptual tasks. Representative Research in Social Psychology, 7, 35-43.


17. Milgram, S. (1961). Nationality and conformity. Scientific American, 205(5), 45-51. Frager, R. (1970). Conformity and anticonformity in Japan. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 15,203-210.


18. Maccoby, E., amp; Jacklin, C. (1974). The psychology of sex differences. 268- 272). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Copper, H. (1979). Statistically combin-446 ing independent studies: A meta-analysis of sex differences in conformity research. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 131-146.


19. Eagly, A., amp; Carii, L. (1981). Sex of researchers and sex-typed communications as determinants of sex differences in influenceability: A meta-analysis of social influence studies. Psychological Bulletin, 90, 1-20. Javomisky, G. (1979). Task content and sex differences in conformity. Journal of Social Psychology, 108, 213-220. Feldman-Summers, S., Montana, D., Kaspinyk, D., amp; Wagner, B. (1980). Influence attempts when competing views are gender-related: Sex as credibility. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 5,311-320.


20. Schneider, F. (1970). Conforming behavior of black and white children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16, 466-471.


21. Allport, G. (1954). The nature of prejudice (pp. 13-14). Cambridge, MA: Addison-Wesley.


22. Dittes, J., amp; Kelley, H. (1956). Effects of different conditions of acceptance upon conformity to group norms. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 53, 100-107.


23. Bushman, B.J. (1988). The effects of apparel on compliance: A field experiment with a female authority figure. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 14, 459-467.


24. Festinger, L. (1954). Atheory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 7, 117-140.


25. Mullen, В., Cooper, С., amp; Driskell, J.E. (1990). Jaywalking as a function of model behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 16 (2), 320-330.


26. Aronson, E., amp; O'Leary, M. (1982-83). The relative effectiveness of models and prompts on energy conservation: A field experiment in a shower room. Journal of Environmental Systems, 12, 219-224.


27. Cialdini, R.B., Reno, R.R., amp; Kallgren, C.A. (1990). Afocus theory of normative conduct: Recycling the concept of norms to reduce littering in public places. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 1015-1029.


28. Ibid.


29. Schachter, S., amp; Singer, J. (1962). Cognitive, social, and physiological determinants of emotional state. Psychological Review, 69, 379-399.


30. James, W. (1890). Principles of psychology. New York: Smith.


31. Haney, C. (1984). Examining death qualification: Further analysis of the process effect. Law and Human Behavior, 8, 133-151.


32. Kelman, H. (1961). Processes of opinion change. Public Opinion Quarterly, 25, 57-78.


33. Kiesler, С., Zanna, M., amp; De Salvo, J. (1966). Deviation and conformity: Opinion change as a function of commitment, attraction, and presence of a deviate. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3, 458-467.


34. Vogler, R., Weissbach, Т., Compton, J., amp; Martin, G. (1977). Integrated behavior change techniques for problem drinkers in the community. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, 267-279. Kuetner, С., Lichtenstein, E., andMees, H. (1968). Modification of smoking behavior: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 70, 520-533.


35. Milgram, S. (1963). Behavioral study of obedience. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67, 371-378. Milgram, S. (1965). Some conditions of obedience and disobedience to authority. Human Relations, 18, 57-76. Milgram, S. (1974). Obedience to authority. New York: Harper amp; Row.


36. Elms, A.C., amp; Milgram, S. (1966). Personality characteristics associated with obedience and defiance toward authoritative command. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 1, 282-289.


37. Kilham, W., amp; Mann, L. (1974). Level of destructive obedience as a function of transmitter and executant roles in the Milgram obedience paradigm. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29, 696-702. Shanab, M., amp; Yahya, K. (1977). Abehavio-ral study of obedience in children. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 530-536. Miranda, KB., Caballero, R.B., Gome?., M.G., amp;Zamorano, M.M. (1981). Obedience to authority. Psiqui^: Revista de Psiquiatria, Psicologiay Psicosomatica, 12, 212- 221. Mantell, D. (1971). The potential forviolence in Germany. Journal of Social Issues, 27, 101-112.


38. Milgram, S. (1974). Obedience to authority. New York: Harper amp; Row. Sheridan, C., amp; King, R. (1972, August). Obedience to authority with an authentic victim. Paper presented at the convention of the American Psychological Association.


39. Milgram, S. (1965). Liberating effects of group pressure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1, 127-134.


40. Milgram, S. (1965), Some conditions of obedience and disobedience to authority. Human Relations, 18, 57-76.


41. Milgram, S. (1965). Liberating effects of group pressure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 127-134.


42. Rosenthal, A.M. (1964), Thirty-eight witnesses. New York: McGraw-Hill.


43. Korte, C., amp; Kerr, N. (1975). Response to altruistic opportunities in urban and nonurban settings. Journal of Social Psychology, 95, 183-184. Rushton, J.P. (1978). Urban density and altruism: Helping strangers in a Canadian city, suburb, and small town. Psychological Reports, 43, 987-990.


44. Darley, J., Latane, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8, 377-383. Latane, В., amp; Darley, J. (1968). Group inhibition of bystander intervention in emergencies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 10, 215-221. Latane, В., amp; Rodin, J. (1969). A lady in distress: Inhibiting effects of friends and strangers on bystander intervention. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 5,189-202.


45. Latane, В., amp; Nida, S. (1981). Ten years of research on group size and helping. Psychological Bulletin, 89,308-324.


46. Latane amp; Rodin, Lady in distress.


47. Darley amp; Latane, Bystander intervention.


48. Piliavin, 1., Rodin, J., amp; Piliavin, J. (1969). Good samaritanism: An underground phenomen? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 13, 289-299.


49. Bickman, L. (1971). The effect of another bystander's ability to help on bystander intervention in an emergency. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 7, 367-379. Bickman, L. (1972). Social influence and diffusion of responsibility in an emergency. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 8, 438-445.


50. Piliavin, J., amp; Piliavin, E. (1972). The effect of blood on reactions to a victim. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 23, 353-361.


51. Darley, J., amp; Batson, D. (1973). ‹From Jerusalem to Jericho›: A study of situational and dispositional variables in helping behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 27,100-108.


52. dark III, R., amp; Word, L. (1972). Why don't bystander help? Because of ambiguity? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 24, 392-400. Solomon, L., Solomon, ff., amp; Stone, R. (1978). Helping as a function of number of bystanders and ambiguity of emergency. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 4, 318-321.


53. Baron, R.A. (1970). Magnitude of model's apparent pain and ability to aid the model as determinants of observer reaction time. Psychonomic Science, 21, 196-197.


54. Suedfeld, P., Bochner, S., amp; Wnek, D. (1972). Helper-sufferer similarity and a specific request for help: Bystander intervention during a peace demonstration. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 2,17-23.

К главе 3 Массовая коммуникация, пропаганда и процесс убеждения


1. АВС to air major nuclear war film. (1983, September). Report from Ground Zero, J(l), 1-2.


2. Schofield, J. W., amp; Pavelchak, M.A. (1989). Fallout from ‹The Day After›: The impact of a TV film on attitudes related to nuclear war. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 19,433-448.


3. Newsweek, June 2, 1974, p. 79. O'Connor, J.J. (1974, March 10). They sell all kinds of drugs on television. The New York Times, p. D15.


4. Roberts, C. (1993). Special Report, National Public Radio, Morning Edition, September 3, 1993.


5. Mark Levy, цит. по: Time, October 1, 1979, p. 83.


6. Mann, P., amp; Iscoe, 1. (1971). Mass behavior and community organization: Reflections on a peaceful demonstration. American Psychologist, 26, 108-113,


7. St. Petersburg (Florida) Times, October 21, 1982. The (Nashville) Tennes-seean, October 31, 1982.


8. Newsbank, October 1982, Vol. 19, p. 1.


9. Phillips,D.P., amp; Carstensen.L.L. (1986). Clustering of teenage suicides after television news stories about suicide. New England Journal of Medicine, 315, 685-689.


10. Phillips, D.P. (1979). Suicide, motor vehicle fatalities, and the mass media: Evidence toward a theory of suggestion. American Journal of Sociology, 84, 1150-1174.


11. McGinness, J. (1970). The selling of the president: 1968 (p. 160). New York: Pocket Books.


12. Lyle, J., amp; Hoffman, ff. (1971). Explorations in patterns of television viewing by preschool-age children. In J.P. Murray, E.A.Robinson, amp; G.A.Comstock (Eds.). Television and social behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 257-344). Rockville, MD: National Institutes of Health.


13. Lyle, J., amp; Hoffman, H. (1971). Children's use of television and other media. In J.P. Murray, E.A. Robinson, and G.M. Comstock (Eds.), Television and social behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 129-256). Rockville, MD: National Institutes of Health.


14. Bern, D. (1970). Beliefs, attitudes, and human affairs. Belmont, CA: Brooks/ Cole.


15. Zajonc, R. (1968). The attidudinal effects of mere exposure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Monograph Supplement, 9, 1-27.


16. Crush, J., McKeough, К., amp;Ahlering, R. (1978). Extrapolating laboratory exposure research to actual political elections. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 257-270.


17. Crush, J.E. (1980). Impact of candidate expenditures, regionality, and prior outcomes on the 1976 presidential primaries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38,337-347.


18. White, J.E. (1988, November 14). Bush's most valuable player. Time, pp. 20-21.


19. Rosenthal, A. (1988, October 24). Foes accuse Bush campaign of inflaming racial tension. The New York Times, pp. Al, B5. Pandora's box (1988, October). The New Republic, pp. 4, 45.


20. Tolchin, M. (1988, October 12). Study says 53.000 get prison furloughs in '87, and few did harm. The New York Times, p. A23.


21. Pratkanis, A.R., amp; Aronson, E. (1992). The age of propaganda: The everyday use and abuse of persuasion. New York: W.H. Freeman.


22. Pratkanis, A.R. (1993). Propaganda and persuasion in the 1992 U.S. presidential election: What are the implications for a democracy? Current World Leaders, 36, 341-361.


23. Zimbardo, P., Ebbesen, E., amp; Maslach, C. (1977). Influencing attitudes and changing behavior (2nd ed.). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.


24. Petty, R.E., amp; Cacioppo, J.T. (1986). The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (pp. 123- 205). Hillside, NJ: Eribaum.


25. Aristotle (1954). Rhetoric. In W. Roberts (Trans.), Aristotle, rhetoric and poetics (p. 25). New York: Modern Library. Рус. пер. - ‹Риторика Аристотеля›. Пер. И. Платоновой. СПб., 1894. Балашов и К°.


26. Hovland, С., amp; Weiss, W. (1951). The influence of source credibility on communication effectiveness. Public Opinion Quarterly, 15, 635-650.


27. Aronson, E., amp; Golden, B. (1962). The effect of relevant and irrelevant aspects of communicator credibility on opinion change. Journal of Personality, 30, 135-146.


28. Walster(Hatfield), E., Aronson, E., amp; Abrahams, D. (1966). On increasing the persuasiveness of a low prestige communicator. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 2,325-342.


29. Eagly, A., Wood, W., amp; Chaiken, S. (1978). Causal inferences about communicators and their effect on opinion change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 424-435.


30. Santa Cru^ Sentinel, January 13, 1987, p. A8.


31. Walster(Hatfield), E., amp; Festinger, L. (1962). The effectiveness of ‹overheard› persuasive communications. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 65, 395-402.


32. Mills, J., amp; Aronson, E. (1965). Opinion change as a function of communicator's attractiveness and desire to influence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1,173-177.


33. Eagly, A., amp; Chaiken, S. (1975). An attribution analysis of the effect of communicator characteristics on opinion change: The case of communicator attractiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 136-144.


34. Hartmann, G. (1936). A field experience on the comparative effectiveness of ‹emotional› and ‹rational› political leaflets in determining election results. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 31, 336-352.


35. Leventhal, Н. (1970). Findings and theory in the study of fear communications. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 5, pp. 119- 186). New York: Academic Press.


36. Leventhal, Н., Meyer, D., amp; Neren^, D. (1980). The common sense representation of illness danger. In S. Rachman (Ed.), Contributions to medical psychology (Vol. 2). New York: Pergamon Press.


37. Time, February 16, 1987, pp. 50-53.


38. San Francisco Chronicle, June 19, 1987, p. 9.


39. Leishman, К. (1987, February). Heterosexuals and AIDS. The Atlantic Monthly, pp. 39-58.


40. Liberman, A., amp; Chaiken, S. (1992). Defensive processing of personally relevant health messages. Personality and Social Psychology, 18, 669-679.


41. dark III, R.D. (1990). The impact of AIDS on gender differences in willingness to engage in casual sex. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20, 771-782.


42. Leishman, К. (1987, February). The Atlantic Monthly. Heterosexuals and AIDS, p. 44.


43. Williams, S.S., Kimble, D.L., Cowell, N.H., Weiss, L.H., Newton, K.J., Fisher, J.D., amp; Fisher, W.A. (1992). College students use implicit personality theory instead of safe sex. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22, 921-933.


44. Hirschom, M. (1987, April 29). AIDS not seen as a major threat by heterosexuals on campuses. Chronicle of Higher Education.


45. Aronson, E. (1989). Excuses, excuses, excuses: Why sexually active college students do not use condoms. Invited address, meeting of the Western Psychological Association, 1989.


46. Aronson, E. (1991). How to persuade sexually active college students to use condoms. Invited address, meeting of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco, California.


47. Nisbett, R., Borgida, E, Crandall, R., amp; Reed, Н. (1976). Popular introduction: Information is not always informative. In J.S. Carroll and J.W. Payne (Eds.), Cognition and social behavior^. 227-236). Hilisdale, NJ: Eribaum. Nisbett, R., amp; Ross, L. (1980). Human inference: Strategies and shortcomings of social judgement. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Hamill, R., DeCamp Wllson, Т., amp; Nisbett, R. (1980). Insensiv-ity to sample bias: Generalizing from atypical cases. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 578-589. Шелли Тейлор, социальный психолог-когнитивист, утверждает, что эффект ‹яркости› не подтверждается большинством экспериментальных результатов. Обсуждение этой темы - см.: Taylor, S., amp; Thompson, S. (1982). Stalking the elusive ‹vividness› effect. Psychological Review, 89, 155-181.


48. Gonzales, M.H., Aronson, E., amp; Costanzo, M. (1988). Increasing the effectiveness of energy auditors: A field experiment. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18, 1049- 1066.


49. Hovland, С., Lumsdain, A., amp; Sheffield, F. (1949). Experiments on mass communications. Princeton: Princeton University Press.


50. Miller, N., amp; Campbell, D. (1959). Recency and primacy in persuasion as a function of the timing of speeches and measurements. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 59,1-9.


51. Zimbardo, P. (1960). Involvement and communication discrepancy as determinants of opinion conformity. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 60, 86-94.


52. Whittaker, J.O. (1963). Opinion change as a function of communication-attitude discrepancy. Psychological Reports, 13, 763-772.


53. Hovland, С., Harvey, O.J., amp; Sherif, M. (1957). Assimilation and contrast effects in reaction to communication and attitude change. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 55,244-252.


54. Aronson, E., Turner, J., amp; Carlsmith, J.M. (1963). Communication credibility and communication discrepancy as determinants of opinion change. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67,31-36.


55. Zellner, M. (1970). Self-esteem, reception, and influenceability. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 15, 87-93.


56. Janis, I.J., Kaye, D., amp; Kirschner, P. (1965). Facilitating effects of ‹eating-while-reading› on responsiveness to persuasive communication. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1, 181-186.


57. Hass, R.G., amp; Grady, K. (1975). Temporal delay, type of forewarning, and resistance to influence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, II, 459-469.


58. Freedman, J., amp; Sears, D. (1965). Warning, distraction, and resistance to influence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 7, 262-266.


59. Brehm, J. (1966). A Theory of Psychological Reactance. New York: Academic Press.


60. Bensley, L.S., amp; Wu, R. (1991). The role ofpsychological reactance in drinking following alcohol prevention messages. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 21, 1111-1124.


61. Heilman, M. (1976). Oppositional behavior as a function of influence attempt intensity and retaliation threat. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 33, 574- 578.


62. Petty, R., amp; Cacioppo, J. (1977). Forewarning, cognitive responding, and resistance to persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 645-655.


63. Festinger, L., amp; Maccoby, N. (1964). On resistance to persuasive communications. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 68, 359-366.


64. Sloan, L., Love,R., amp; Ostrom, T. (1974). Political heckling: Who really loses? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 30, 518-525.


65. McGuire, W., amp; Papageorgis, D. (1961). The relative efficacy ofvarious types of prior belief-defense in producing immunity against persuasion. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 62, 327-337.


66. McAlister, A., Perry, С., Killen, J., Slinkard, L.A., amp; Maccoby, N. (1980). Pilot study of smoking, alcohol and drug abuse prevention. American Journal of Public Health, 70,719-721.


67. Pryor, В., amp; Steinfatt, W. (1978). The effects of initial belief level on inoculation theory and its proposed mechanisms. Human Communications Research, 4, 217-230.


68. Canon, L. (1964). Self-confidence and selective exposure to information. In L. Festinger (Ed.), Conflict, desision, and dissonance (pp. 83-96). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.


69. TV violence for a new generation (1987). TV Monitor (p. 2). San Francisco: The Children's Television Resource and Education Center.


70. Статистика взята из: Pratkanis, A.R., amp; Aronson, E. (1992). Age of propaganda: The everyday use and abuse of persuasion. New York: W.H. Freeman.


71. Liebert, R. (1975, July 16). Testimony before the Subcommittee on Communications of the House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce.


72. San Francisco Chronicle, August 25, 1979, p. 15. San Francisco Sunday Examiner and Chronicle, August 26, 1979, p. 2. San Jose Mercury-News, February II, 1982, p. A2.


73. Gerbner, G., Gross, L., Morgan, M., amp; Signorelli, N. (1986). Living with television: The dynamics of the cultivation process. In J. Bryant amp; D. Zillman (Eds.), Perspectives on media effects (pp. 17-40). Hilisdale, NJ: Eribaum.


74. Цит. по: Newsweek, December 6, 1982, p. 140.


75. Haney, С., amp; Manwlati, /.(1981). Television criminology: Network illusions of criminal justice realities. In Readings about the social animal (6th ed., pp. 120-131). San Francisco: W.H. Freeman.


76. Hennigan, K., Heath, L., Wharton, J.D., DelRosario, M., Cook, Т., amp; Colder, B. (1982). Impact of the introduction of television on crime in the United States: Empirical findings and theoretical implications. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 461-477.


77. Ronis,D.,Baumgardner, M., Leippe, M.,Cacioppo, J., amp; Greenwald, A. (1977). In search of reliable persuasion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 548-569.

К главе 4 Социальное познание


1. Lippmann,W. (\911).Public opinion.New York: Harcourt, Brace, amp; Co.


2. Именно в те времена возник обычай, согласно которому мужчина должен был идти так, чтобы ‹прикрывать› женщину от проезжей части улицы. В эпоху средневековья подобный обычай казался вполне осмысленным: сапоги мужчины, если их забрызгает грязью, было легче отчистить, чем платье женщины.


3. Panati, С. (1987). Extraordinary origins of everyday things. New York: Harper amp; Row.


4. Gilovich, T. (1991). How we know what isn 't so. New York: Free Press.


5. Bentham, J. (1876/1948). A fragment on government and an introduction to the principles of morals and legislation.Oxford: Blackwell.Pyc.nep, - Избранные сочинения Иеремии Бентама. Т. 1. Спб., Русская книжная торговля. 1867, Современную версию ‹калькуляции блага› - см.: Fishbein, M., amp;.А^еп, J. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: An introduction to theory and research. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.


6. Kelley, H.H. (1967), Attribution theory in social psychology. In D. Levine (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation (Vol. 15, pp. 192-241). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Kelley, H.H. (1973). The process of causal attribution. American Psychologist, 28, 107-128.


7. Высказывается интересная мысль о том, что даже ученые не всегда мыслят как ученые, подпадая под действие тех предрассудков, которые описаны в данной главе. CM. Greenwald, A. G., Pratkanis, A. R., Leippe, M.R., amp; Baumgardner, M.H. (1986). Under what conditions does theory obstruct research process? Psychological Review, 93, 216-229.


8. Fiske, S. Т., amp; Taylor, S.E. (1991). Social cognition. New York: McGraw-Hill.


9. Bronowski, J. (1973). The ascent of man. Boston: Little, Brown, Co. Pratkanis, A.R., amp; Aronson, E. (1991). The age of propaganda: The everyday use and abuse of persuasion. New York: W.H. Freeman.


10. Pratkanis, A.R., Farquhar, P.H., Silbert, S., amp; Hearst, J. (1989). Decoys produce contrast effects and alter choice probabilities. University of California, Santa Cruz.


11. Kenrick, D. Т., amp; Guttieres, S.E. (1980). Contrast effects in judgements of attractiveness: When beauty becomes a social probern. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38,131-140.


12. Higgins, E.T., Rholes, W.S., amp; Jones, C.R. (1977). Category accessibility and impression formation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13, 141-154.


13. Heath, L., Acklin, M., amp; Wiley, K. (1991). Cognitive heuristics and AIDS risk assessment among physicians. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 1859- 1867.


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16. lyengar, S., amp; Kinder, D.R. (1987). News that matters. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.


17. Цит. по: Rogers and Dearing, Agenda-setting research.


18. Kahneman, D., amp; Tversky, A. (1984). Choices, values, and frames. American Psychologist, 39,341-350.


19. Gonzales, M.H.,Aronson, E., amp; Costan^o, M. (1988). Increasing the effectiveness of energy auditors: A field experiment. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18, 1046- 1066.


20. Meyerowitz, В.E., amp; Chaiken, S. (1987). The effect of message framing on breast self-examination attitudes, intentions, and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52,500-510.


21. Asch, S. (1946). Forming impressions of personality. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 41,258-290.


22. Jones, E.E., Rock, L., Shaver, K.G., Goethals, G.R., amp; Ward, L.M. (1968). Pattern of performance and ability attribution: An unexpected primacy effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 10, 317-340.


23. Aronson, J.M., amp; Jones, E.E. (1992). Inferring abilities after influencing performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 28, 277-299.


24. Zukier, ff. (1982). The dilution effect: The role of the correlation and dispersion of predictor variables in the use of nondiagnostic information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43,1163-1174.


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26. ‹Which cereal for breakfast?› Consumer Reports, February 1981, pp. 68-75.


27. Сравнение основано на: ‹Eating to lower your blood cholesterol›. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIH Publication No. 87-2920, September 1987. Было показано, что насыщенные жирные кислоты - те, что содержатся в мясе животных и отдельных видах растительных жиров (в кокосовом, шоколадном, пальмовом и во всех гидрированных маслах), повышают уровень холестерола. Изготовители хлопьев иногда используют подобные жиры в своих продуктах - особенно кокосовое, пальмовое и гидрированные масла. Чтобы исключить их, многие производители хлопьев в настоящее время заняты изменением состава своих продуктов - так что, перед тем как принять окончательное решение, какой именно сорт покупать, внимательно ознакомьтесь с тем, что написано на коробке.


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30. Pratkanis, A.R. (1988). The attitude heuristic and selective fact identification. British Journal of Social Psychology, 27, 257-263.


31. Thistlewaite, D. (1950). Attitude and structure as factors in the distortion of reasoning. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 45, 442-458.


32. Ross, L., Greene, D., amp; House, P. (1977). The ‹false-consensus› effect: An egocentric bias in social perception and attribution process. Journal of Experimental Soda! Psychology, 13,279-301.


33. Pratkanis, Cognitive representation.


34. О лабораторной демонстрации - см.: Gilovich, Т. (1981). Seeing the past in the present: The effect of associations to familiar judgments and decisions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 797-808.


35. Darley, J.M., amp; Gross, P.ff. (1983). A hypothesis-confirming bias in labeling effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 20-33.


36. Hamilton, D.L., amp; Ross, T.L. (1980). Illusory correlation and the maintenance ofstereotypic beliefs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 832-845.


37. Pratkanis, A.R. Личное сообщение.


38. Chapman, L.J. (1967). Illusory correlation in observational report. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 6, 151-155. Chapman, L.J., amp; Chapman, J.P. (1967). Genesis of popular but erroneous psychodiagnostic observations. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 72, 193-204. Chapman, L.J., amp; Chapman, J.P. (1969). Illusory correlation as an obstacle to the use of valid psychodiagnostic signs. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 74,271-280.


39. Park, В., amp; Rothbart, M. (1982). Perception of out-group homogeneity and levels of social categorization: Memory for the subordinate attributes of in-group and out-group members. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 1051-1068.


40. Обзоры и дискуссию - см.: Tajfel, Н. (1981). Human groups and social categories. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Turner, J.C. (1987), Rediscovering the social group. New York: Basil Blackwell.


41. Loflus, E.F., amp; Loftus, G.R. (1980). On the permanence of stored information in the human brain. American Psychologist, 35, 409-420.


42. Loftus, E.F., amp; Ketchum, К. (1991). Witness forthe defense. New York: St.Martin's Press.


43. Loftus, E.F., amp; Palmer, J.C. (1974). Reconstruction ofautomobile destruction: An example of the interaction between language and memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 13, 585-589.


44. Loftus, E.F. (1977). Shifting human color memory. Memory and Cognition, 5, 696-699.


45. Loftus, E.F. (1993). The reality of repressed memories. American Psychologist, 48, 518-537.


46. Ross, M., McFarland, С., amp; Fletcher, G.O.J. (1981). The effect of attitude on the recall of personal history. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 627-634.


47. Gibbs, G. (1981). Teaching students to learn. Milton Keynes, England: Open University Press.


48. Pratkanis, A.R., Eskenaw, J., amp; Greenwald, A. G. (1990). What you expect is what you believe (but not necessarily what you get): On the effectiveness of subliminal self-help audiotapes.Unpublished manuscript.University of Santa Cruz. Greenwald, A.G., Spangenberg, E.R., Pratkanis, A.R., amp; Eskena^i, J. (1991). Double-blind tests of subliminal self-help audiotapes. Psychological Science, 12, 119-122.


49. Conway, M., amp; Ross, M. (1984). Getting what you want by revising what you had. JoumalofPersonality andSocial Psychology, 47, 738-748.


50. Wyatt, D.F., amp; Campbell, D. T. (1951). On the liability of stereotype or hypothesis. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 46, 496-500. Bruner, J.S., amp; Potter, M.C. (1964). Science, 144, 424-425.


51. Snyder, M., amp; Swann, W.B. (1978). Hypothesis-testing processes in social interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 1202-1212.


52. Fischhoff, В. (1975). Hindsight does not equal foresight: The effect of outcome knowledge on judgment under uncertainty. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 1, 288-299. Fischhoff, В. (1977). Perceived informativeness offacts. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 3,349-358.


53. Greenwald, A.G. (1980). The totalitarian ego: Fabrication and revision of personal history. American Psychologist, 35, 603-618.


54. LaPier, R. (1934). Attitudes versus actions. Social Forces, 13, 230-237.


55. Wicker, A. (1969). Attitudes versus actions: The relationship of verbal and overt behavioral responses to attitude objects. Journal of Social Issues, 25 (4), 41-78.


56. Jones, E.E. (1990). Interpersonal perception. New York: W.H. Freeman. Jones, E.E., amp; Davis, K.E. (1965). From acts to dispositions: The attribution process in person perception. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 219-266). New York: Academic Press.


57. Jones, E.E., amp; Harris, V.A. (1967). The attribution of attitudes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 3, 1-24.


58. Favo, R.H. (1986). How do attitudes guide behavior? In R.M. Sorrentino amp; E.T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition (pp. 204-242). New York: Guilford Press. Fa^io, R.H. (1989). On the power and functionality of attitudes: The role of attitude accessibility. In A.R. Pratkanis, S.J. Breckler, amp;A.G. Greenwald (Eds.), Attitude structure and function (pp. 153-179). Hilisdale, NJ: Eribaum.


59. Fazio, R.H., amp; Williams, C.J. (1986). Attitude accessibility as a moderator of the attitude-perception and attitude-behavior relations: An investigation of the 1984 presidential elections. JoumalofPersonality and Social Psychology, 51, 505-514.


60. Fazio, R.H., Chen, J., McDonel, E.G., amp; Sherman, S.J. (1982). Attitude accessibility, attitude-behavior consistency, and the strength of the object-evaluation association. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 50, 339-357. Fa^io, R.H., Powell, M.C., amp; 456 Herr, P.M. (1983). Toward a process model of attitude-behavior relation: Accesing one's attitude upon mere observation of the attitude object. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 723-735. Favo, R.H., amp; Zanna, M. P. (1981). Direct experience and attitude-behavior consistency. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 14, pp. 162-202). New York: Academic Press. Regan, D.T., amp; Fa^io, R.H. (1977). On the consistency between attitudes and behavior: Look to the method of attitude formation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13,38-45.


61. Herr, P.M. (1986). Consequences of priming: Judgment and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1106-1115.


62. Ross, L. (1977). The intuitive psychologist and his shortcomings: Distortion in the attribution process. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 10, pp. 173-220). New York: Academic Press.


63. Bierbrauer, G. (1973). Effect of set, perspective, and temporal factors in attribution. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University. Цит. по: Ross (1977).


64. Ross, L., Amabile, T.M., amp; Steinmet^, J.L. (1977). Social roles, social control, and biases in social-perception processes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 485-494.


65. Ответы: стадион ‹Форбс› в Питтсбурге, Вильнюс и 4 июля 1826 года.


66. Jones, Е.Е., amp; Nisbett, R.E. (1971). The actor and the observer: Divergent perceptions of the causes of behavior. In Е.Е. Jones, D.E. Kanouse, H.H. Kelley, R.E. Nisbett, S. Valins, amp; B. Weiner (Eds.), Attribution: Perceiving the causes of behavior (pp. 79-94). Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.


67. CM: Jones, Е.Е., Rock, L., Shaver, K.G., Goethals, G. R., amp; Ward, L.M. (1968). Pattern of performance and ability attribution: An unexpected primacy effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 10, 317-349. McArthur, L. (1972). The how and what of why: Some determinants and consequences of causal attribution. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 22, 171-193. Nisbett, R.E., Caputo, C., Legant, P., amp; Marecek, J. (1973). Behavior as seen by the actor and as seen by the observer. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 27, 154-164.


68. Storms, M.D. (1973). Videotape and the attribution process: Reversing the perspective of actors and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 27, 165-175.


69. James, W. (1890/1950). The principles of psychology (pp. 314-315). New York: Dover.


70. Greenwald, A.G. (1980). The totalitarian ego: Fabrication and revision of personal history. American Psychologist, 35, 603-618. Greenwald, A.G., amp; Pratkanis, A.R. (1984). The self. In R.S. Wyer amp; Т.К. Srull (Eds.), Handbook of Social Cognition (Vol. 3, pp. 129-178). Hilisdale, NJ: Eribaum.


71. Greenwald, The totalitarian ego.


72. Jervis, R. (1976). Perception and misperception in international politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University.


73. Longer, E.J. (1975). The illusion of control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 311-329. Longer, E.J. (1977). The psychology of chance. Journal of the Theory of Social Behavior, 7, 185-208.


74. Petty, R.E., amp; Brock, T.C. (1979). Effects of‹Bamum› personality assessments on cognitive behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 201-203.


75. Markus, Н. (1977). Self-schemata and processing information about the self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 63-78. Breckler, S.J., Pratkanis, A.R., amp; McCann, D. (1991). The representation of self in multidimensional cognitive space. British Journal of Social Psychology, 30, 97-112. Brenner, M. (1973). The next-in-line effect. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 12, 320-323. Slamecka, N.J., amp; Graf, P. (1978). The generation effect: Delineation of a phenomenon. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory,4, 592-604. Rogers, Т. B.,Kuiper, N.A., amp; Kirker, W.S. (1977). Self-reference and the encoding of personal information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 677-688. Klein, S.B., amp; Loftus, J. (1988). The nature ofself-referent encoding: The contributions ofelaborative and organizational processes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 5-11.


76. San Francisco Sunday Examiner and Chronicle, April 22, 1979, p. 35.


77. Greenberg, J., Pysy^ynski, Т., amp; Solomon, S. (1982). The self-serving attributional bias: Beyond self-presentation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 18, 56-67. Arkin, P.M., amp; Maruyama, G.M. (1979). Attribution, affect, and college exam performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 71, 85-93. Gilovich, Т. (1983). Biased evaluation and persistence in gambling. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, ^,1110-1126. Ross, M., amp; Sicoly, F. (1979). Egocentric biases in availability and attribution. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 322-336. Breckler, S.J., Pratkanis, A.R., amp; McCann, D. (1991). The representation of self in multidimensional cognitive space. British Journal of Social Psychology, 30, 97-112. Johnston, W.A. (1967). Individual performance and self-evaluation in a simulated team. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 2, 309-328. Cunningham, J.D., Starr, P.A., amp; Kanouse, D.E. (1979). Self as actor, active observer, and passive observer: Implications for causal attribution. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1146-1152.


78. Greenwald, A.G., amp; Bleckler, S.J. (1985). To whom is the self presented? In B.R. Schlenker (Ed.), The self and social life (pp. 126-145). New York: McGraw-Hill.


79. Miller, D.T., amp; Ross, M. (1975). Self-serving biases in the attribution of causality: Fact or fiction? Psychological Bulletin, 82, 213-225.


80. Weary (Bradley), G. (1978). Self-serving biases in the attribution process: A reexamination of the fact or fiction question. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 56-71. Weary, G. (1980). Examination of affect and egotism as mediators of bias in causal attribution. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 348-357. Weary, G" Harvey, J.H., Schwieger, P., Olson, C.T., Perloff, R., amp; Pritchard, S. (1982). Self-presentation and the moderation of self-serving attributional biases. Social Cognition, 1,140-159.


81. Alloy, L.B., amp; Abramson, L.Y. (1979). Judgement of contingency in depressed and nondepressed students: Sadder but wiser. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 108,441-485.


82. Grove, J.R., Hanrahan, S.J., amp; Mcinman, A. (1991). Success/failure bias in attribution across involvement categories in sport. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17,93-97.


83. Taylor, S.E. (1989). Positive illusions: Creative self-deception and the healthy mind. New York: Basic Books.


84. Seligman, M.E.P. (1991). Learned optimism. New York: Knopf. Рус. пер. - Зелигман M. Как научиться оптимизму. Советы на каждый день. M., 1997.

К главе 5 Самооправдание


1. Prasad, J. (1950). A comparative study of rumors and reports in earthquakes. British Journal of Psychology, 41, 129-144.


2. Sinha, D. (1952). Behavior in a catastrophic situation: A psychological study of reports and rumors. British Journal of Psychology, 43, 200-209.


3. Festinger, L. (1957). A theory of cognitive dissonance. Stanford: Stanford University Press.


4. Kassarjian, H., amp; Cohen, J. (1965). Cognitive dissonance and consumer behavior. California Management Review, 8, 55-64.


5. Tagliaco^o, R. (1979). Smokers' self-categorization and the reduction of cognitive dissonance. Addictive Behaviors, 4, 393-399.


6. Goleman, D. (1982, January). Make-or-break resolutions. Psychology Today, p. 19.


7. Austin American, November 18, 1971, p. 69.


8. Hastorf, A., amp; Cantril, H. (1954). They saw a game: A case study. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 49, 129-134.


9. Bruce, L. (1966). How to talk dirty and influence people (pp. 232-233). Chicago: Playboy Press, and New York: Pocket Books.


10. Time, November 24, 1980, p. II.


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12. Lord, С., Ross, L., amp; Lepper, M. (1979). Biased assimilation and attitude polarization: The effects of prior theories on subseqently considered evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 2098-2109.


13. Ehrlich, D., Guttman, 1., Schonbach, P., amp; Mills, J. (1957). Postdecision exposure to relevant information. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 57, 98-102.


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15. Johnson, D.J., amp; Rusbult, C.E. (1989). Resisting temptation: Devaluation of alternative partners as ameans of maintaining commitment in close relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 967-980.


16. Simpson, J.A., Gangestad, S. W., amp; Lerma, M. (1990). Perception of physical attractiveness: Mechanisms involved in the maintenance of romantic relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59, 1192-1201.


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18. White, R. (1971, November). Selective inattention. Psychology Today, pp. 47- 50, 78-84.


19. Глубокий анализ данного процесса, имевшего место в ряде катастрофических политических решений, - см.: Janis, 1. (1972). Victims of group-think. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.


20. Pentagon papers: The secret war. (1971, June 28). Time, p. 12.


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22. Pliner, P., Hart, H., Kohl, J., amp; Saari, D. (1974). Compliance without pressure: Some further data on the foot-in-the-door technique. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 10,17-22.


23. Knox, R., amp; Inkster, J. (1968). Postdecision dissonance at post time. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8, 319-323.


24. Frenkel, O.J., amp; Doob, A. (1976). Post-decision dissonance at the polling booth. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 8, 347-350.


25. Cialdini, R., Cacioppo, J., Bassett, R., amp; Miller, J. (1978). Low-ball procedure for producing compliance: Commitment then cost. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36,463-476.


26. Ibid.


27. Mills, J. (1958). Changes in moral attitudes following temptation. Journal of Personality, 26,517-531.


28. Festinger, L., amp; Carlsmith, J.M. (1959). Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 203-210.


29. Cohen, A.R. (1962). An experiment on small rewards for discrepant compliance and attitude change. In J.W. Brehm amp; A.R. Cohen, Explorations in cognitive dissonance (pp. 73-78). New York: Wiley.


30. Между прочим, следует отметить, что исследование феномена ‹говорю-значит-верю› привело к ряду противоречивых экспериментальных данных. Однако факты в поддержку приведенного в тексте анализа перевешивают. Более детальное обсуждение этого вопроса - см.: Aronson, Е. (1969). The theory of cognitive dissonance: A current perspective. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 1-34). New York: Academic Press.


31. Zimbardo, P., Weisenberg, M., Firestone, 1., amp; Levy, B. (1965). Communicator effectiveness in producing public conformity and private attitude change. Journal of Personality 33, 233-255.


32. Mills, Changes in moral attitudes.


33. Aronson, Е. (1968). Dissonance theory: Progress and problems. In R.P. Abelson, Е. Aronson, W.J. McGuire, T.M. Newcomb, M.J. Rosenberg, and P.H. Tannenbaum (Eds.), Theories of cognitive consistency: A sourcebook (pp. 5-27). Chicago: Rand McNally. Aronson, Е. (1969). The theory of cognitive dissonance: A current perspective. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 4, pp. 1-34). New York: Academic Press.


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35. Hoyt, M., Henley, M., amp; Collins, B. (1972). Studies in forced compliance: Confluence of choice and consequence on attitude change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 23, 204-210. Schlenker, B., amp; Schlenker, P. (1975). Reactions following counterattitudinal behavior which produces positive consequences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 962-971. Riess, M., amp; Schlenker, B. (1977). Attitude change and responsibility avoidance as modes of dilemma resolution in forced-compliance situations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 21-30.


36. Cialdini, R., amp; Schroeder, D. (1976). Increasing compliance by legitimizing paltry contributions: When even a penny helps. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34,599-604.


37. Freedman, J. (1963). Attitudinal effects of inadequate justification. Journal of Personality, 31,371-385.


38. Deci, Е. (1975). Intrinsic motivation. New York: Plenum. Deci, Е. (1971). Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 18, 105-115. Deci, E., Nezlek, J., amp; Sheinman, L. (1981). Characteristics of the rewarder and intrinsic motivation of the rewardee. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 1-10.


39. Lepper, M.R., amp; Greene, D. (1975). Turning play into work: Effects of adult surveillance and extrinsic rewards on children's intrinsic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 479-486.


40. Aronson, E., amp; Carlsmith, J.M. (1963). Effect of the severity of threat on the devaluation of forbidden behavior. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66, 584-588.


41. Freedman, J. (1965). Long-term behavioral effects of cognitive dissonance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 1, 145-155.


42. Sears, R., Whiting, J., Nowlis, V., amp; Sears, P. (1953). Some child-rearing antecedents of aggression and dependency in young children. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 47, 135-234.


43. Aronson, E., amp; Mills, J. (1959). The effect of severity of initiation on liking for a group. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 59, 177-181.


44. Gerard, H., amp; Malhewson, G. (1966). The effects of severity of initiation on liking for a group: A replication. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 2, 278- 287.


45. Cooper, J. (1980). Reducing fears and increasing assertiveness: The role of dissonance reduction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 16, 199-213.


46. Conway, М., amp; Ross, М. (1984). Getting what you want by revising what you had. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 738-748.


47. Michener, J. (1971). Kent State: What happened and why. New York: Random House.


48. Ibid.


49. Davis, K., amp; Hones, E.E. (1960). Changes in interpersonal perception as a means of reducing cognitive dissonance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 61, 402-410.


50. Glass, D. (1964). Changes in liking as a means of reducing cognitive discrepancies between self-esteem and aggression. Journal of Personality, 32, 531-549.


51. Berscheid, E., Boyce, D., amp; Walster(Hatfield), E. (1968). Retaliation as a means of restoring equity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 10, 370-376.


52. Jones, E., amp; Nisbett, R. (1971). The actor and the observer: Divergent perceptions of the causes of behavior. New York: General Learning Press.


53. Shaw, G.B. (1952). In D. Russel (Ed.), Selected Prose. New York: Dodd, Mead.


54. Brehm, J. (1959). Increasing cognitive dissonance by afait-accompH. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 379-382.


55. Darley,J., amp; Berscheid,E. (1967).Increased liking as aresult of the anticipation of personal contact. Human Relations, 20, 29-40.


56. Lehman, D., amp; Taylor, S.E. (1987). Date with an earthquake: Coping with a probable, unpredictable disaster. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 13, 546- 555.


57. Aronson, E., amp; Mettee, D. (1968). Dishonest behavior as a function of different levels of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 9, 121-127.


58. Zimbardo, P. (1969). The cognitive control of motivation. Glencoe, IL: Scott, Foresman.


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39. Bern, D., amp; Bern, S. (1970, November). We're all nonconscious sexists. Psychology Today, pp. 22-26,115-116.


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41. Hartley, R. (1960), Children's concepts of male and female roles. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 6,83-91.


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44. Broverman, 1.К., Vogel, S., Broverman, D., Clarkson, F., amp; Rosencrant^, P. (1972). Sex-role stereotypes: A current appraisal. Journal of Social Issues, 28, 59-78.


45. Porter,N., amp; Geis,F.(l9Sl). Women and nonverbal leadership cues: When seeing is not believing. In C. Mayo and N. Henley (Eds.), Gender and nonverbal behavior. New York: Springer-Verlag.


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48. Jackson, L.A., amp; Cash, T.F. (1985). Components of gender stereotypes: Their implications for inferences on stereotypic and nonstereotypic dimensions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, II, 326-344.


49. Homer, M.S. (1970). Femininity and successful achievement: Abasic inconsistency. In J.M. Bardwick et al. (Eds.), Feminine personality and conflict. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole. Homer, M.S. (1972). Toward an understanding of achievement-related conflicts in women. Journal of Social Issues, 28, 157-175.


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52. Thibodeau, R. (1989). From racism to tokenism: The changing face of blacks in New Yorker cartoons. Public Opinion Quarterly, 53, 482-494.


53. Kolbe, R., amp; LaVoie, /.(1981). Sex-role stereotyping in preschool children's picture books. Social Psychology Quarterly, 44, 369-374.


54. Chavez, D. (1985). Perpetuation of gender inequality: A context analysis of comic strips. Sex Roles, 13, 93-102,


55. Geis, F., Brown, V., Jenningf(Walstedt), J., amp; Porter, N. (1984). TV commercials as achievement scripts for women. Sex Roles, 10, 513-525.


56. Cracker, J., Thompson, L.L., McGraw, K.M., amp; Ingerman, C. (1987). Downward comparison, prejudice, and evaluations of others: Effects of self-esteem and threat. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 907-916.


57. Dollard, J. (1987). Class and caste in a southern town. New Haven: Yale University Press.


58. Bettelheim, B., amp; Janowit^, M. (1964). Social change and prejudice, including dynamics of prejudice. New York: Free Press.


59. Tumin, M., Barton, P., amp; Burrus, B. (1958). Education, prejudice, and discrimination: A study in readiness for desegregation. American Sociological Review, 23, 41-49.


60. Levitas, M. (1969). America in crisis. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.


61. Dollard, J. (1938). Hostility and fear in social life. Social Forces,]7, 15-26.


62. Roberts, E., цит. по: P. Jacobs and S. Landau (1971). To serve the devil (Vol. 2, p. 71). New York: Vintage Books.


63. Cracker, С., цит. по: P. Jacobs and S. Landau (1971). To serve the devil (Vol. 2, p. 81). New York: Vintage Books.


64. Greeley, A., amp; Sheatsley, P. (1971). The acceptance of desegregation continues to advance. Scientific American, 225 (6), 13-19. См. также: Vanneman, R.D., amp; Pettigrew, T.F. (1972). Race and relative deprivation in the urban United States. Race, 13, 461-486.


65. Sherif, M., Harvey, O.J., While, B.J., Hood, W., amp; Sherif, C. (1961). Intergroup conflict and cooperation: The Robbers Cave experiment. Norman: University of Oklahoma Institute of Intergroup Relations.


66. Hovland, C., amp; Sears, R. (1940). Minor studies of aggression: Correlation of lynchings with economic indices. Journal of Psychology, 9, 301-310.


67. Klineberg, 0. (1971). Black and white in international perspectives. American Psychologist, 26,119-128.


68. Speer, A. (1970). Inside the Third Reich: Memoirs (R. Winston and C.Winston, Trans.). New York: Macrnillan.


69. Miller, N., Bugelski, R. (1948). Minor studies in aggression: The influence of frustrations imposed by the in-group on attitudes expressed by the out-group. Journal of Psychology, 25,437-442.


70. Rogers, R., amp; Prentice-Bum, S. (1981), Deindividuation and anger-mediated interracial aggression: Unmasking regressive racism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41,63-73.


71. Weatherly, D. (1961). Antisemitism and the expression of fantasy aggression. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 62, 454-457.


72. Adomo, Т., Frenkel-Brunswick, E., Levinson, D., amp; Sanford, R.N. (1950). The authoritarian personality. New York: Harper.


73. McFarland, S.M., Ageyev, V.S., amp; Abalakina-Paap, M.A. (1992). Authoritarianism in the former Soviet Union. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63, 1004-1010.


74. Greeley amp; Sheatsley, Acceptance of desegregation.


75. Pettigrew, T.F. (1959). Regional differences in anti-Negro prejudice. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 59, 28-36.


76. Pettigrew, T.F. (1958). Personality and sociocultural factors and intergroup attitudes: Across-national comparison. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2, 29-42.


77. Watson, J. (1950). Some social and psychological situations related to change in attitude. Human Relations, 3, 15-56.


78. Kirkland, S.J., Greenberg, J., amp; Pys^c^ynski, T. (1987). Further evidence of the deleterious effects of overheard derogatory ethnic labels: Derogation beyond the target. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,]3, 216-227.


79. MacCrone, 1. (1937). Race attitudes in South Africa. London: Oxford University Press.


80. Laarsfeld, P. (1940). Radio and the printed page. New York: Duell, Sloan amp; Pearce.


81. Deutsch, M., amp; Collins, A^. (1951). Interracial housing: A psychological evaluation of a social experiment. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. CM. также: Wilner, D., Walkley.R., amp; Cook, S. (1955). Human relations in interracial housing. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.


82. Brehm, J. (1959). Increasing cognitive dissonance by a fait-accompli. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 379-382.


83. Darley, D., amp; Berscheid, E. (1967). Increased liking as a result of the anticipation of personal contact. Human relations, 20, 29-40.


84. National Opinion Research Center (1980). General social surveys, 1972- 1980: Cumulative codebook. Storrs, CT: Roper Public Opinion Research Center, University of Connecticut.


85. Pettigrew, T.F. (1961). Social psychology and desegregation research. American Psychologist, 16,105-112.


86. Clark, К.В. (1953). Desegregation: An appraisal of the evidence. Journal of Social Issues, 9, No. 4.


87. Stouffer, S., Suchman, E., DeVinney, L., Star, S., amp; Williams, R., Jr. (1949). The American soldier: Adjustment during army life. In Studies in social psychology in WW II (Vol. 1). Princeton: Princeton University Press.


88. Kramer, B. (1951). Residential contact as a determinant of attitudes toward Negroes. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University. Winder, A. (1952). White attitudes towards Negro-white interaction in an area of changing racial composition. American Psychologist, 7, 330-331.


89. Asher, S., amp; Alien, V. (1969). Racial preference and social comparison processes. Journal of Social Issues, 25, 157-166. Stephan, W., amp; Kennedy, J. (1975). An experimental study of inter-ethnic competition in segregated schools. Journal of School Psychology, 13, 234-247. Gerard, H., amp; Miller, N. (1976). School desegregation. New York: Plenum.


90. Stephan, W.G. (1978). School desegregation: An evaluation of predictions made in Brown v. The Board of Education. Psychological Bulletin, 85, 217-238.


91. Lester, J. (1971). Beep! Beep! Umgawa! Black Power! In R. Kytie (Ed.), Confrontation: Issues of the 70's (pp. 162-181). New York: Random House.


92. Deutsch amp; Collins, Interracial housing.


93. Sherif, M., amp; Sherif, C. (1956). An outline of social psychology. New York: Harper amp; Bros. Sherif, Harvey, White, Hood, amp; Sherif, Intergroup conflict and cooperation.


94. Deutsch, M. (1949). A theory of cooperation and competition. Human Relations, 2, 129-152. Deutsch, M. (1949). An experimental study of the effects of cooperation and competition upon group process. Human Relations, 2, 199-232.


95. Keenan, P., amp; Camevale, P. (1989). Positive effects of within-group competition on between-group negotiation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 19, 977- 992.


96. Aronson, E., Stephan, С., Sikes, J., Blaney, N., amp; Snapp, M. (1978). Thejigsaw classroom. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications. Aronson, E., amp; Osherow, N. (1980). Cooperation, prosocial behavior, and academic performance: Experiments in the desegregated classroom. In L. Bickman (Ed.), Applied Social Psychology Annual (Vol. I, pp. 163-196). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.


97. Stephan, W. (1975). An experimental study of interethnic competition in segregated schools. Journal of School Psychology, 13, 234-247.


98. Geffner, R. (1978). The effects of interdependent learning on self-esteem, inter-ethnic relations, and intra-ethnic attitudes of elementary school children: A field experiment. Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, University of California, Santa Cruz. Gon^ale^, A. (1979). Classroom cooperation and ethnic balance. Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation, University of California, Santa Cruz.


99. Lucker, W., Rosenfield, D., Sikes, J., amp; Aronson, E. (1977). Performance in the interdependent classroom: A field study. American Educational Research Journal, 13, 115-123.


100. Desforges, D.M., Lord, C.G., Ramsey, S.L., Mason, J.A., Van Leeuwen, M.D., West, S.C., amp; Lepper, M.R. (1991). Effects of Structured Cooperative Contact on changing negative attitudes towards stigmatized social groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 531-544.


101. Gaertner, S.L., Mann, J.A., Dovidio, J.F., Murrell, A. J., amp; Pomare, M. (1990). How does cooperation reduce intergroup bias? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59,692-704.


102. Bridgeman, D. (1981). Enhanced role-taking through cooperative interdependence: A field study. Child Development, 52, 1231-1238.


103. Stephan, С., Kennedy, J., amp; Aronson, E. (1977). Attribution of luck or skill as a function of cooperating or competing with a friend or acquaintance. Sociometry, 40, 107-1 II. Presser, N., Stephan, C., Kennedy, J., amp; Aronson, E. (1978). Attributions to success and failure in cooperative, competitive, and interdependent interaction. European Journal of Social Psychology, 8, 269-274. Stephan, S., Burnhain, M., amp; Aronson, E. (1979). Attributions for success and failure after cooperation, competition, or team competition. European Journal of Social Psychology, 9, 109-114,


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105. Kohn, A. (1986). No Contest. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.


106. McConahay, J.B. (1981). Reducing racial prejudice in desegregated schools. In W.D. Hawley (Ed.), Effective school desegregation. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.


107. Gonzalez., A. (1979). Classroom cooperation and ethnic balance. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Santa Cruz. Aronson, E., amp; Gonzalez., A. (1988). Desegregation, jigsaw and the Mexican-American experience. In P. Katz and D. Taylor, Eliminating Racism. New York: Plenum.


108. Pettigrew, T.F. (1961). Social psychology and desegregation research. American Psychologist, 15, 61-71.

К главе 8 Симпатия, любовь и межличностная сенситивность


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32. Tan, A.S. (1979). TV beauty ads and role expectations of adolescent female viewers. Journalism Quarterly, 56, 283-288.


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35. Frieze, I.H., Olson, J.E., amp; Russell, J. (1991). Attractiveness and income for men and women in management. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 21, 1039-1057.


36. Sigall, H., amp; Aronson, Е. (1969). Liking for an evaluator as a function of her physical attractiveness and nature of the evaluations. Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, 5,93-100.


37. Sigall, H., amp; Ostrove, N. (1975). Beautiful but dangerous: Effects of offender attractiveness and nature of the crime on juridic judgement. Journal ofPersonality and Social Psychology, 31,410-414.


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46. Secord, P., amp; Backman, C. (1964). Interpersonal congruency, perceived similarity, and friendship. Sociometry, 27, 115-127.


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51. Van Gorp, G., Stempfle, J., amp; Olson, D. (1973). Dating attitudes, expectations, and physical attractiveness. Unpublished paper, reported in Z. Rubin, Liking and loving: An invitation to social psychology (p. 68). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.


52. Jones, E.E., Bell, L., amp; Aronson, E. (1971). The reciprocation of attraction from similar and dissimilar others: A study in person perception and evaluation. In Experimental social psychology (pp. 142-183). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.


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58. Winch, R. (1958). Mate selection: A study of complementary needs. New York: Harper amp; Row.


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60. Rubin, Z. (1970). Measurement of romantic love. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16,265-273.


61. Rubin, Z. (1973). Liking and loving: An invitation to social psychology. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.


62. Walster (Hatfield), E., amp; Walster, B. W. (1978). A new look at love. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.


63. Brehm, S. (1985). Intimate re!afionships.'Nev/ York: Random House.


64. dark, M.S., amp; Mills, J. (1979). Interpersonal attraction in exchange and communal relationships. Journal ofPersonality and Social Psychology, 37, 12- 24. Mills, J., amp; Clark.M.S. (1982).Exchange and communal relationships.In L.Wheeler (Ed.), Review of personality and social psychology (\o\. III). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. dark, M.S. (1986).Evidence for the effectiveness of manipulations of desire for communal versus exchange relationships. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 12, 425.


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66. dark, M.S., Mills, J.R., amp; Corcoran, D.M. (1989). Keeping track of needs and inputs of friends and strangers. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 15, 533-542.


67. Duck, S. (1995). Strategems, spoils and a serpent's tooth: On the delights and dilemmas of personal relationships. In W.R. Cupach and B.H. Spitzberg (Eds.), The darkside of interpersonal communication. Hilisdale, NJ: Eribaum.


68. Harvey, O.J. (1962). Personality factors in resolution of conceptual incongruities. Sociometry, 25,336-352.


69. Stevenson, H., Keen, R., amp; Knights, J. (1963). Parents and strangers as reinforcing agents for children's performance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67, 183-185.


70. Floyd, J. (1964). Effects of amount of reward and friendship status of the other on the frequency of sharing in children. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, University of Minnesota.


71. Cicero (46 г. до н.э.). De amicitia. Libri Sapientis: Horti Novabaculae, Roma. Рус. пер. - Цицерон Марк Туллий. О дружбе. В кн.: Цицерон. О старости, о дружбе, об обязанностях. М.: Наука. 1957.


72. Harvey, J.H., Weber, A.L., amp; Orbuch, T.L. (1990). Interpersonal accounts: A social psychological perspective. Oxford: Blackwell.


73. Rands, M., Levinger, G., amp; Mellinger, G. (1981). Patterns of conflict resolution and marital satisfaction. Journal of Family Issues, 2, 297-321.


74. Skotko, P.К. (1981). The relation between interpersonal attraction and measures of self-disclosure. Journal of Social Psychology, 72, 311- 312. Archer, R., amp; Burle-son,J. (1980).The effects of timing of self-disclosure on attraction and reciprocity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 120-130. Taylor, D., Gould, R., amp; Brounstein, P. (1981). Effects of personalistic self-disclosure. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 7,437-492. IS.Kahn, M. (1971). Sensitivity training at Kresge College. Unpublished manuscript.

К главе 9 Социальная психология как наука


1. Richard Feynman. The best mind since Einstein. Nova, KQED, December 21, 1993.


2. Симонов П.В. Личное сообщение.


3. Gabler, N. (1993). Persona goeth before a fall. New York Times, December 12,

section 2, p. I.


4. Ibid, p. 1.


5. Ibid, p. 34.


6. Nisbett, R., amp; Winston, T. (1977). Telling more than we know: Verbal reports on mental processes. Psychological Review, 84, 231-259.


7. Aronson, E., Wllleiman, В., amp; Floyd, J. (1966). The effect of a pratfall on increasing interpersonal attractiveness. Psychonomic Science, 4, 227-228.


8. Aronson, E., amp; Mills, J. (1959). The effect of severity of initiation on liking for agroup. JoumalofAbnormaland Social Psychology, 59, 177-181.


9. Liebert, R., amp; Baron, R. (1972). Some immediate effects of televised violence on children's behavior. Developmental Psychology, 6, 469-475.


10. Aronson, E., amp; Carlsmith, J.M. (1969). Experimentation in social psychology. In G. Lindzey and E. Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of Social Psychology, 2nd Edition, Vol.


11. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1-79. CM. также: Aronson, E., Brewer, M., amp; Carls-mith, J.M. (1985). Experimentation in social psychology. In G. Lindzey and E. Aronson (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology, 3d Edition (Vol. I, pp. 441-486). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.


12. Milgram, S. (1963). Behavioral study of obedience. JoumalofAbnormaland Social Psychology, 67,371-378.


13. Aronson, E., Sigall, H., amp; Van Hoose, T. (1970). The cooperative subject: Myth or reality? Journal of Experimental and Social Psychology, 6, 1-10.


14. Asch, S. (1951). Effects of group pressure upon the modification and distortion of judgement. In M.H.Guetzkow (Ed.), Groups,leadership,and men (pp. 177- 190). Pittsburgh: Carnegie. Asch, S. (1951). Studies of independence and conformity: A minority of one against a unanimous majority. Psychological Monographs, 70(9, Whole No. 416).


15. Dawes, R., McTavish, J., amp; Shaklee, H. (1977). Behavior, communication, and assumptions about other people's behavior in a common dilemma situation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, I-Il.


16. Asch, Effects of group pressure.


17. Aronson, E., amp; Mettee, D. (1968). Dishonest behavior as a function of differential levels of induced self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 9, 121- 127.


18. Milgram, S. (1963). Behavioral study of obedience. JoumalofAbnormaland Social Psychology, 67,371-378.


19. Zimbardo, P. (1971, October 25). The psychological power and pathology of imprisonment (p. 3). Statement prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on the Judiciary; Subcommittee No. 3: Hearings on Prison Reform, San Francisco, CA.


20. Bickman, L., amp; Zarantonello, M. (1978). The effects of deception and level of obedience on subjects' ratings of the Milgram study. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 4,81-85.


21. Milgram, S. (1964). Issues in the study of obedience: A reply to Baumrind. American Psychologist, 19,848-852.


22. Aronson, E. (1966). Avoidance ofinter-subject communication. Psychological Reports, 19,238.


* В настоящем издании подстрочно приводятся примечания переводчика, сноска на которые дается звездочкой. Цифры отсылают к литературе и комментариям автора, которые помещены в конце книги. Примечания научного редактора, а также автора книги приводятся подстрочно. Они имеют специальные пометки - "Примеч. научного редактора" и "Примеч. автора". Сноска на них также дается звездочкой.


* Звездочки различного цвета - форма поощрения, принятая в ряде американских начальных школ.


* Английский термин "attitude", обозначающий словесную оценку человеком некоторого предмета или явления, здесь и далее переводится словом "аттитьюд". Распространенный в литературе перевод этого термина словами "социальная установка" не вполне адекватен. Выбирая вариант перевода, надо считаться с тем, что в психологии термин "установка" используется для описания совсем иных явлений, а добавление к этому термину слова "социальная" часто противоречит смыслу аттитьюдных феноменов. - Примеч. научного редактора.


* Неофициальный лозунг американских рекламных агентов, смысл которого: ‹Сначала выкинем товар на рынок, а там видно будет›.


* ‹Groupthink› в тексте оригинала - неологизм, часто встречающийся без перевода и в отечественной специальной литературе. Поскольку сам автор признавал, что к введению этого термина его ‹подтолкнул› Джордж Оруэлл со своим знаменитым ‹двоемыслием› (так в русском издании его книги ‹1984› переводится слово ‹doublethink›), слово ‹группомыслие› показалось мне более точным и богатым ассоциациями вариантом перевода.


* Автор книги приводит пример, относящийся к бейсболу. Поскольку правила этой сугубо американской игры мало знакомы русскому читателю, я ‹перевел› ситуацию на футбольное поле, не нарушая ее социально-психологической сути.


* Freedonia в тексте оригинала


* Moot courtrooms - специально оборудованные и декорированные помещения в американских юридических школах. Они предназначены для обучения будущих юристов в обстановке, максимально приближенной к их сфере деятельности.


* У нас этот эпизод более известен как трагедия Сонгми.

.


* Заповедник на севере Калифорнии.


* Евангельский персонаж, упоминание которого стало синонимом бескорыстия и благотворительности.


* Ключевыми для данной главы являются слова ‹mass communication› - ‹массовая коммуникация› или ‹массовое общение›. Соответственно термины ‹mass media› и ‹media› мы переводим как ‹средства массовой коммуникации›. В отечественной литературе обычно используют термин ‹средства массовой информации›, что по смыслу менее точно. - Примеч. научного редактора.


* ‹Прайм-тайм› (‹prime-time›) - наиболее выгодное в плане привлечения максимальной аудитории телевизионное время.


** Коммуникаторы - индивиды, группы или организации, которые производят сообщения и передают их по каналам средств массовой информации. - Примеч. научного редактора.


* Центральные (‹деловые›) районы крупных американских городов с наступлением темноты превращаются для пешеходов в самые опасные и рискованные.


* Furlough program - специальная программа предоставления увольнительных, применяемая в американской пенитенциарной системе для поощрения тех заключенных, которые примерным поведением демонстрируют свое исправление, и названная так по аналогии с армейскими увольнительными.


* ‹Consumer Reports› - популярнеиший американский журнал с более или менее объективной (независимой) оценкой потребительских товаров, представленных на рынке: миллионы американцев советуются с ним перед тем, как сделать покупку.


* ‹Wheel of Fortune› - популярное американское телешоу, прототип передачи ‹Поле чудес›, которая почти точно копирует свой американский оригинал.


* Следует отметить, что исследование Гербнера носит корреляционный, а не экспериментальный характер. Поэтому невозможно определить, действительно ли долгое время, проведенное у телеэкрана, вызывает у людей предрассудки и ошибочные убеждения, или же, наоборот, люди, у которых они уже есть, просто имеют тенденцию проводить у телевизоров больше времени. Чтобы сделать свои выводы о наличии корреляций более доказательными. Гербнер и его сотрудники составили выборки телезрителей, в которых были представлены люди всех возрастных категорий, имеющие различные уровни образования, достатка, а также относящиеся к различным этническим группам. После того как все эти характеристики телезрителей были приняты во внимание, исследователи убедились в том, что их вывод относительно того. что. чем больше времени люди проводят перед экраном телевизора, тем более ошибочными будут их представления о реальной жизни, справедлив для всех категорий телезрителей. - Примеч. автора.


* Выражаю признательность моему другу и коллеге Энтони Р.Пратканису за составление первоначального варианта этой главы. - Примеч. автора.


* Прайминг (priming) - термин, который в данном контексте обозначает процесс, хорошо известный в отечественной психологии как формирование (фиксирование) установки; этот процесс обстоятельно изучен в трудах грузинской психологической школы Д.Н. Узнадзе. ‹Прайминг› и ‹формирование установки› мы будем использовать в качестве синонимов. - Примеч. научного редактора.


* Three-Mile Island - американская АЭС. на которой 28 марта 1979 г. произошла серьезная авария.


* Yuppie (от young professional - молодой профессионал) - общепринятый американский термин, обозначающий профессионально и карьерно ориентированного молодого человека - антипода хиппи.


* В американских университетах широко распространена и закреплена традицией система как мужских ‹братств› (fraternities), так и аналогичных женских ‹сестринских› союзов (sororities). которые мы обозначаем словом ‹община›.


* Основатель секты, созданной по принципу ‹семьи› хиппи, организатор зверского и немотивированного убийства в 1969 г. кинозвезды Шарон Тейт и ее гостей; осужден на пожизненное заключение.


** Легендарный вампир из Трансильвании. нашедший литературное воплощение в романе Брэма Стокера, а после завоевания киноэкрана превратившийся в культовый образ ‹фильмов ужасов›.


*** Читатель должен заметить принципиальную разницу между данным экспериментом и тем, что был проведен Хиггинсом и другими (см. его обсуждение выше в этой же главе). В эксперименте Хиггинса исследователи формировали у испытуемых установку на определенную категорию качеств - их ‹отрицательность›, и это влияло на наблюдателей таким образом, что они начинали рассматривать последующие двусмысленные стимулы (типа Дональда) в более негативном свете просто потому, что именно на поиск негатива у них и формировали установку. В эксперименте же Херра исследователи проводили прайминг испытуемых в отношении конкретных примеров враждебности (Гитлер). И в этом случае сработал эффект контраста: по сравнению с предельно враждебными персонажами, двусмысленный персонаж (Дональд) начинал выглядеть этаким плюшевым медвежонком. - Примеч. автора.


* Талоны на питание, выдаваемые безработным в рамках социальной помощи.


* Знаменитый американский театральный и цирковой импрессарио XIX в., создатель сети цирков Барнума.


* Из предыдущей главы (‹Социальное познание›) мы узнали, что убеждения и аттитыоды не всегда являются хорошими предсказателями поведения человека, то есть поведение не всегда согласуется с соответствующими убеждениями и аттитьюдами. В данной главе мы хотим подчеркнуть, что большинство людей считает, что их убеждения и аттитыоды должны быть в согласии с реальным поведением. А потому люди стремятся оправдать свое поведение, когда оно все же противоречит аттитьюдам. - Примеч. автора.


* Тектонический разрыв, проходящий под территорией почти всего штата Калифорния и в неопределенном будущем грозящий геологической катастрофой, в результате которой часть территории штата может ‹отколоться› и уйти под воду.


* Братья Гручо. Харпо, Чико и Зеппо Марксы - популярные американские актеры-комики 30-х годов.


* Город в штате Коннектикут на северо-востоке США, где находится престижный Йельский университет.


* Крайне консервативная женская общественная организация в США - блюстители морали и традиционных американских ценностей.


* Следует отметить, что в данном эксперименте, так же как и в других обсуждаемых в данной главе экспериментах, все испытуемые после его окончания прошли собеседование, на котором им объяснили суть проводимых исследований. Были предприняты все способы противодействия закреплению аттитыодных изменений, происшедших в процессе проведения эксперимента. Постэксперимен-тальное собеседование следует проводить после окончания всякого эксперимента, но особенно необходимо это делать, когда возникают изменения важных аттитьюдов или тех, которые существенно влияют на реальное поведение. - Примеч. автора.


* Члены американских студенческих братств часто вскладчину снимают один или несколько домов в университетском городке, а не живут в университетских общежитиях.


* Внимательный читатель может заметить связь между этим исследованием и еще одним, рассмотренным ранее в этой главе. Речь идет об эксперименте, в котором люди, нарушавшие данные себе самим обещания на Новый год, чувствовали себя скверно и поэтому позже всячески принижали важность данных зароков. Я предположил тогда, что альтернативным методом уменьшения диссонанса, связанного с неудачей в выполнении намеченного плана, может быть включение индивидом следующего механизма: надо менее жестко определить понятие ‹успех› путем введения, например, понятия ‹частичный успех›. Однако исследование Конвея и Росса предлагает еще одну альтернативу: например, если кто-то пытается бросить курить и не достигает успеха ни в снижении количества выкуренных задень сигарет, ни в полном отказе от них, то вызванный данной неудачей диссонанс все-таки может быть уменьшен: курильщику следует ‹забыть›, как много сигарет он выкуривал до того, как начал бороться с этой привычкой. - Примеч. автора.


* Напомню, в каких двух случаях диссонанс может быть вызван ударом по Я-концепции: 1) когда мы осознанно делаем что-то глупое, неразумное и 2) когда мы делаем что-то, приносящее вред другому человеку. В первом случае, если вам легко задать себе вопрос: ‹Откуда мне было знать?› - диссонанс будет невелик, тогда как во втором случае факт нанесения вреда другому человеку делает невозможным избежать диссонанса с помощью подобного вопроса. - Примеч. автора.


* Следует, однако, заметить, что полученным результатам можно дать и альтернативные объяснения. Дело в том, что живущие в непосредственной близости от атомной станции и Три-майл-Айленде могут существенным образом отличаться от тех. кто жил в отдалении от нес. Например, сам факт, что люди выбрали для проживания именно это место - вблизи от ядерного реактора, может служить убедительным отражением их более позитивных аттитыодов в отношении атомной энергетики. Следовательно, живущие рядом со станцией люди и до инцидента могли с большей вероятностью воспринимать Комиссию по контролю за атомной энергией как организацию, заслуживающую доверия, чем те люди, которые жили поодаль. - Примеч. автора.


* Намек на знакомый каждому американскому школьнику эпизод времен Войны за независимость, когда кавалеристы под командованием офицера Пола Ревира в ночь на 18 апреля 1775 г. совершили беспримерный марш-бросок, успев предупредить патриотов, что англичане идут на город Конкорд с целью уничтожить главный арсенал восставших.


* Напомним, что в американском футболе данное поведение не является исключительным. оно разрешено правилами, более того, составляет саму сущность игры.


* Все американские фильмы получают специальную разрешительную рубрикацию, касающуюся возраста аудитории. Категория R означает, что дети до 17 лет могут смотреть данный фильм только в сопровождении родителя или любого взрослого: категория Х (ныне замененная другой - NC 17) означает фильм, на который дети до 17 лет не допускаются ни при каких условиях.


* Район компактного проживания чернокожих жителей Лос-Анджелеса, до недавнего времени типичное ‹негритянское гетто›, место массовых волнении в 1965 г.


* ‹Separate but equal› - принцип, оправдывавший расовую сегрегацию в американских школах, процесс отмены которой начался в середине 1950-х годов.


* Спешу добавить, что эти данные получены в результате эксперимента со студентами, которым были предложены некоторые гипотетические ситуации. А из этого следует, что, взятые сами по себе, эти данные не доказывают, что официальные лица, от которых зависит решение о досрочном освобождении, ведут себя точно так же. Однако описанный эксперимент ‹Зейс/яви-тельпо демонстрирует, что когнитивная тенденциозность присуща даже умным и благонамеренным людям. И до тех пор пока мы не будем постоянно иметь это в виду, сохраняя бдительность на сей счет, любой из нас может совершить ту же самую ошибку. - Примеч. автора.


* Graduate Record Evaluation - стандартный тест, используемый в американской системе образования. - Примеч. научного ред.


* White Anglo-Saxon Protestant (сокращенно WASP) - человек белой расы, англосаксонского происхождения, протестант по вероисповеданию. Общепринятое обозначение представителя доминирующего в США большинства, относящегося к ‹среднему классу›, имеющего среди предков первопоселенцев из северной части Европы и противопоставляемого всем другим этническим, расовым и религиозным меньшинствам.


* Принятые в США федеральные программы льгот при приеме на работу, при поступлении в университеты и так далее для представителей меньшинств и других находящихся в невыгодной ситуации социальных групп. В самое последнее время под влиянием ‹политической корректности› заметно свертывание подобных программ, ибо они, по мнению идеологов политкорректности, оскорбительны для данных социальных групп, так как неявно предполагают их относительную ущербность и неполноценность.


* Внимательный читатель мог заметить, что это более щадящая форма свойственной нам тенденции умалить достоинства человека, которого мы сами сделали жертвой. В главах 5 и 6 мы имели возможность убедиться в том, что когда кто-то наносит вред другому, то агрессор стремится умалить достоинства жертвы, превратить ее в ‹нечеловека›, а затем снова наносит ей вред. Теперь же мы видим, что когда кто-то со стороны наблюдает, как другому не повезло, он приходит к мысли, что жертва, должно быть. что-то сделала не так и заслужила свою участь. Примеч. автора.


** Намек на то, что в понедельник утром все болельщики футбола, баскетбола и других спортивных игр, которые проводятся по выходным дням, уже точно знают, как закончились матчи.


* Расовая десегрегация - процесс, активизировавшийся в США в середине 50-х гг. XX в., с целью исключить из социальной жизни какие-либо проявления расового неравенства. Толчком к этому послужили известные события: упоминавшееся решение Верховного суда от 1954 г., события 1955 г. в штате Алабама (отказ владельцев автобусных компаний обеспечить чернокожим американцам равные права при пользовании общественным транспортом), решение конгресса США от 1957 г., подтвердившее равные права чернокожего населения на участие в выборах, и др.


* В американской системе среднего и высшего образования принята десятеричная буквенная система оценок (по нисходящей): А, А-, В+, В, В-, С+, С, С-, D. Е.


* Должен заметить, что не все современные этологи согласны с дарвиновской точкой зрения на происхождение улыбки: многие считают, что улыбка зародилась не как знак агрессии, а, скорее, как знак подчинения, предотвращавший или останавливающий агрессию со стороны доминантных, обладающих силой и властью ‹других›. - Примеч. автора.


* Замок Камелот - резиденция легендарного короля Артура, место, где был установлен знаменитый Круглый стол, за которым король восседал со своими верными рыцарями. В переносном смысле - средоточие благородного рыцарства, оплот добродетели и мужества.


* Используемый автором термин ‹communication› в данной главе переводится синонимичными терминами ‹общение› и ‹коммуникация›. - Примеч. научного редактора.


* Конец прошлого века, время правления английской королевы Виктории, отличавшееся показной строгостью нравов.


* Мир ИСТОЧНИКА КОММУНИКАЦИИ: И1 (чувства); И2 (намерения); И3 (поведение - вербальное и невербальное - как оно демонстрируется Источником коммуникации) Мир реципиента коммуникации: Р1 (поведение - вербальное и невербальное - как оно воспринимается реципиентом коммуникации); Р2 (чувства); Р3 (интерпретация намерений Источника коммуникации); Р4 (оценка Источника как личности) (и3 соединено стрелкой с Р1.)

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