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Монография содержит естественнонаучный анализ ключевых понятий общей психологии: потребностей, эмоций, воли, поведения, индивидуальных (типологических) различий, сознания и неосознаваемых проявлений высшей нервной деятельности человека.

Этот анализ осуществлен с позиций предложенного автором потребностно-информационного подхода и опирается на данные этологии, физиологии высшей нервной деятельности и психофизиологии человека. В заключительных главах рассматриваются вопросы художественного творчества, теории и практики воспитания.

DJVU. Мотивированный мозг. Симонов П. В.
Страница 267. Читать онлайн

P, V. S I MONOV, MOTIVATED BRAIN. Natural scientific backgrounds for general psychology. Moscow: Publishing House «Nauka», 1987.

This monograph contains à natural scientific analysis of the key concepts of general psychology on the basis of the пееИп(оппабопа1 approach suggested by the author of this book, and rests upon the data, provided by the general physiology of brain, comparative physiology of the higher nervous activity and human psychophysiology. The results of this analysis may be described in the form of the following short definitions, given in the succession they are discussed in the book.

Need — à specific (essential) (огсе of living organisms, procuring their connections with external environment for self-preservation and self-development, à source of living systems' activity in the surrounding world. Human needs may be divided into three basic groups independent as to their origin: vital, social and ideal needs of knowledge and creativity. In each group there are needs of preservation and those of development, the social group revealing needs «for me» (rights) and «for others» (respons>bilities). Satisfaction of any of the above needs is promoted by initially independent additional needs in equipment (with means, knowledge, skills) and the need to overcome obstacles on the way to the goal, commonly defined as will. Personality — individual unique composition and internal hierarchy of basic (vital, social, ideal) needs of à given human being, including their varieties of preservation and development, «for me» and «for others». The most important personality characteristic is — which of these needs and for how. long are dominant in the hierarchy of coexisting motives, which need is «supplied» by creative intuition (superconsciousness, according to К. S. Stanislavsky's terminology).

Emotion — reflection in human and higher animals' brain of an urgent need and of probability (possibility) of its satisfaction. The subject assesses its probability at conscious and unconscious levels using his inborn and previously acquired individual experience, involuntarily comparing the information on the means, time, resources, necessary for reaching the goal (satisfaction of à need) with the available information. Emotion in its neurophysiological sense is an active state of à system of specialized brain structures, prompting the subject to change his behaviour so that to maximize or to minimize this state, which determines reinforcing, switching over and compensatory (аиЬ- stituting) functions of emotions in organization of goal-directed behaviour. Behaviour — such form of human and animal vital activity, which changes the probability and the duration of contact with an. external object, able to satisfy the 1пйчЫиаГв need.

Consciousness — specificly human form of reflection of reality, operating with knowledge, which by means of the «second signal system» (words, mathematical symbols, artistic images) may be shared with other individuals, with other generations — in the form of cuHural топшпепЬ. Subconsciousness — à variety of the unconscious psychic, comprising all that which was conscious or may become conscious under definite conditions, i. e. well automized and because of that no Longer conscious skills; forced out consciousness motivational conflicts; well learned social norms, controlling behaviour and experienced as «(пе voice of conscience», «the call of duty» etc. Super- consciousness (creative intuition) is manifested as initial stages of a creative venture, uncontrolled by consciousness and will. Unconsci-


DJVU. Мотивированный мозг. Симонов П. В. Страница 267. Читать онлайн